Through increased border enforcement, the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act changed US-Mexico migration flows. Motivated by the rise in utilization of coyotes and soaring coyote fees, I hypothesize that the burden of migration costs due to border enforcement is unequally distributed among migrants.
I leverage the Mexican Migration Project data to operationalize migration cost through payments for human smuggling services. Implementing a Heckman Model to correct for selection on coyote usage, this paper investigates: (1) how has coyote pricing changed in a post-IRCA era; (2) what role does demographic composition of migration flows and social networks play in explaining fees paid to coyotes; (3) what role does immigration enforcement play in explaining coyote payments; (4) how have the relationships between migration costs and human capital, social capital and enforcement changed post-1986?
This paper quantitatively analyzes which type of migrants is most vulnerable to “indebted crossings”, a phenomenon recently exposed by qualitative research. This paper offers a first step towards addressing concerns of debt, wealth transfers and intergenerational inequality in Mexican sending communities.
United States immigration enforcement has shifted from the border area enforcement, under the jurisdiction of Customs and Border Protection (CBP), to interior immigration enforcement under the jurisdiction of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). Beginning in the late Bush era, interior immigration enforcement takes form through disruptive and concentrated ICE raids, marking a shift toward criminalizing what were previously administrative violations (Peterson 2009). The expansion of ICE’s capacity for interior immigration enforcement has resulted in 33.7% of total yearly apprehensions
The literature has exposed the negative impacts of immigration enforcement (broadly defined) on health, education, employment, housing and segregation. Descriptive analysis of ICE enforcement finds that mass apprehension and deportation has not targeted communities equally; ICE enforcement actions are geographically concentrated, racialize, and gendered. Additionally, the literature finds that targeted ICE raids-- specifically-- have the potential to shift migration flows, change the population compositions, cripple household income, shatter families, and increase the number of children in foster care. Yet, despite understanding ICE raids as the most aggressive and targeted form of enforcement, little is known about the collateral consequences on schools and students. This paper explores the impacts of ICE raids on academic performance using a triple Difference-in-Difference analytical approach.
Supports Dr. Galli by cleaning, merging and managing large administrative data set documenting US immigration cases from 2009-2019. Data was obtained from TRAC, Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse, through a series of FOIA requests.
Supports Dr. Garip with the COPING project, a study that seeks to understand the impacts of Covid-19 among the immigrant community in the New York City area. Responsible for developing interview documents and team training materials, conducting structured interviews, proofreading translations in Spanish and English.
Supported Dr. Reyes by producing reviews of relevant literature, cleaning and merging a working data set that draws from the Health and Retirement Survey and the Census, executing spatial analysis and preliminary data analysis.
Supported Dr. Bonner-Tompkins in Montgomery County's Racial Equity and Social Justice initiative. Responsible for quantitative and qualitative data management, executing analysis, producing visualizations of findings, field interviews of focus groups in Spanish and English, and creating deliverables.
Supported Dr. Haskins with Systems and Schools project which investigates schools as surveillance institutions and implications for parents involved with Child Protective Services, Immigration and Customs Enforcement and prisons. Responsible for semi-structured interviews, creating materials and proofreading translations in Spanish and English.